US President Joe Biden has said he hopes a ceasefire between Israel and Hamas that would pause hostilities and allow for remaining hostages to be released can take effect by early next week.

Asked when he thought a ceasefire could begin, Mr Biden said: “Well I hope by the beginning of the weekend. The end of the weekend.

“My national security adviser tells me that we’re close. We’re close. We’re not done yet. My hope is by next Monday we’ll have a ceasefire.”

Mr Biden was speaking in New York after recording a TV interview.

Israel Palestinians
A Palestinian child displaced by the Israeli ground offensive at a makeshift tent camp in Rafah (Mohammed Dahman/AP)

Negotiations are under way for a weeks-long ceasefire between Israel and Hamas to allow for the release of hostages being held in Gaza by the militant group in return for Israel releasing hundreds of Palestinian prisoners.

The proposed six-week pause in fighting would also include allowing hundreds of trucks to deliver desperately needed aid into Gaza every day.

Negotiators face an unofficial deadline of the start of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan around March 10, a period that often sees heightened Israeli-Palestinian tensions.

Meanwhile, Israel has failed to comply with an order by the United Nations’ top court to provide urgently needed aid to desperate people in the Gaza Strip, Human Rights Watch said on Monday, a month after a landmark ruling in The Hague ordered Israel to moderate its war.

In a preliminary response to a South African petition accusing Israel of genocide, the UN’s top court ordered Israel to do all it can to prevent death, destruction and any acts of genocide in the tiny Palestinian enclave.

It stopped short of ordering an end to the military offensive that has triggered a humanitarian catastrophe.

Israel denies the charges against it, saying it is fighting in self-defence.

Nearly five months into the war, preparations are under way for Israel to expand its ground operation into Rafah, Gaza’s southernmost town along the border with Egypt, where 1.4 million Palestinians have sought safety.

Israel Palestinians
A camp for Palestinians displaced by the Israeli ground offensive (Mohammed Dahman/AP)

Early on Monday, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s office said the army had presented to the war cabinet its operational plan for Rafah as well as plans to evacuate civilians from the battle zones.

The situation in Rafah has sparked global concern. Israel’s allies have warned that it must protect civilians in its battle against the Hamas militant group.

Also on Monday, Palestinian Prime Minister Mohammed Shtayyeh submitted his government’s resignation, and President Mahmoud Abbas is expected to appoint technocrats in line with US demands for internal reform.

The US has called for a revitalised Palestinian Authority to govern post-war Gaza ahead of eventual statehood, a scenario rejected by Israel.

In its January 26 ruling, the International Court of Justice ordered Israel to follow six provisional measures, including taking “immediate and effective measures to enable the provision of urgently needed basic services and humanitarian assistance” to Gaza.

Israel also must submit a report on what it is doing to adhere to the measures within a month.

The Israeli foreign ministry said late on Monday that it has filed such a report. It declined to share it or discuss its contents.

Israel said 245 lorries of aid entered Gaza on Sunday, less than half the amount that entered daily before the war.

Human Rights Watch, citing UN figures, noted a 30% drop in the daily average number of aid lorries entering Gaza in the weeks following the court’s ruling.

It said that between January 27 and February 21, the daily average of trucks entering was 93, compared with 147 lorries a day in the three weeks before the ruling. The daily average dropped to 57, between February 9 and 21, the figures showed.

The rights group said Israel was not adequately facilitating fuel deliveries to hard-hit northern Gaza and blamed Israel for blocking aid from reaching the north, where the World Food Programme said last week it was forced to suspend aid deliveries.

“The Israeli government has simply ignored the court’s ruling, and in some ways even intensified its repression,” said Omar Shakir, Israel and Palestine director at Human Rights Watch.

The Association of International Development Agencies, a coalition of more than 70 humanitarian organisations working in Gaza and the West Bank, said almost no aid had reached areas in Gaza north of Rafah since the court’s ruling.

Israel denies it is restricting the entry of aid and has instead blamed humanitarian organisations operating in Gaza, saying large aid shipments sit idle on the Palestinian side of the main crossing.

The UN says it cannot always reach the crossing because it is at times too dangerous.

In some cases, crowds of desperate Palestinians have surrounded delivery trucks and stripped them of supplies.

Israel Palestinians
The destruction after an Israeli strike in Rafah (Fatima Shbair/AP)

The UN has called on Israel to open more crossings, including in the north, and to improve the process.

The war, launched after Hamas-led militants rampaged across southern Israel, killing 1,200 people, mostly civilians, and taking roughly 250 people hostage, has caused vast devastation in Gaza.

Nearly 30,000 people have been killed in Gaza, two-thirds of them women and children, according to the Gaza Health Ministry which does not distinguish in its count between fighters and non-combatants.

Israel says it has killed 10,000 militants, without providing evidence.

Fighting has flattened large swathes of Gaza’s urban landscape, displacing about 80% of the territory’s 2.3 million people, who have crammed into increasingly smaller spaces looking for safety.

The crisis has pushed a quarter of the population toward starvation and raised fears of imminent famine, especially in the northern part of Gaza, the first focus of Israel’s ground invasion.

Starving residents have been forced to eat animal fodder and search for food in demolished buildings.

“I wish death for the children because I cannot get them bread. I cannot feed them. I cannot feed my own children,” Naim Abouseido yelled as he waited for aid in Gaza City. “What did we do to deserve this?”